Plants can’t tell you what they need like people can, but they are a bit like having babies in that they require some attention on a daily basis. But one thing they won’t need is fertilizer in the winter. Many plants have a life cycle that puts them dormant during the winter months, so they will need a little less artificial intervention and less water too. Save fertilizing for spring (via Stack Exchange).
You will receive lots of advice from people who sell you plants, seeds, containers and accessories. These people want you to succeed (you are their clientele, at a minimum) and can provide valuable advice. As an overview, Pela provides a solid collection of guidelines for the budding new indoor gardener.
One of their most important stipulations is that you don’t use outdoor soil with your plants. Typically, the soil outdoors is made up of clay, silt and sand, which can carry bacteria and pests that are dangerous to plants indoors. Regular soil can also choke potted roots and drain too slowly.
They suggest potting soil (traditional vegetables are a good place to start) and which you can add to or replace as recommended by your plant vendor. You can also make your own, made from peat, vermiculite and compost.
And finally, if you care about the health and care of your plants, you should invest in the proper tools for cutting, pruning, and repotting plants. Treat them with respect because these plants you are raising are actually living things.